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People Flow in Buildings (Print)

Author: Marja-Liisa Siikonen
Publication Date: 2021



Discover how to measure, control, model, and plan people flow within modern buildings with this one-stop resource from a leading professional

People Flow in Buildings delivers a comprehensive and insightful description of people flow, analyzed with software-based tools. The book offers readers an up-to-date overview of mathematical optimization methods used in control systems and transportation planning methods used to manage vertical and horizontal transportation.

The text offers a starting point for selecting the optimal transportation equipment for new buildings and those being modernized. It provides insight into making passenger journeys pleasant and smooth, while providing readers with an examination of how modern trends in building usage, like increasingly tall buildings and COVID-19, affect people flow planning in buildings.

People Flow in Buildings clearly defines the terms and symbols it includes and then moves on to deal with the measurement, control, modelling, and planning of people flow within buildings of all kinds. Each chapter contains an introduction describing its contents and the background of the subject. Included appendices describe measured passenger data and performed analyses.

Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of:

  • A thorough introduction to people-counting methods, including counting technology inside and outside buildings, passenger traffic components, and manual people-counting
  • An examination of the passenger arrival process in building, including the Poisson arrival process and probability density function, and passenger arrivals in batches
  • A consideration of daily vertical passenger traffic profiles, including two-way traffic profiles and the effects of inter-floor traffic
  • An exploration of people flow solutions, including stairs, escalators, and elevators with collective and destination group control systems, as well as double-deck and multicar system
  • People flow calculation and simulation models
  • Elevator planning with ISO simulation method
  • Elevator planning and evacuation of tall buildings
  • Perfect for software designers in the private sector and academia, People Flow in Buildings will also earn a place in the libraries of elevator consultants, manufacturers, and architects who seek a one-stop reference for transportation devices from a functional and design perspective, as opposed to a hardware perspective.

    Hardcover | 448 Pages | 2 lbs


    PART I: Measured People Flow in Buildings

    1. Building design population

    1.1 Office building population

    1.2 Number of inhabitants in residential buildings

    1.3 Number of hotel guests

    1.4 People arriving from parking areas

    1.5 Population in hospitals

    1.6 Other types of populated buildings

    2. People counting methods

    2.1. Counting technology inside and outside buildings

    2.2. Passenger traffic components

    2.3. Manual people-counting

    2.4. Use of optical vision

    2.5. Visitor-counting with photocell signals and infra-red beams

    2.6. People-counting with access control system

    2.7. Passenger-counting by load-weighing device

    2.8. Elevator monitoring systems

    2.9. External traffic measurement devices

    2.10. Smart sensing and mobile computing

    3. Passenger arrival process in buildings

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Poisson arrival process

    3.2.1 Probability density function

    3.2.2 Example of passenger arrivals through security cages

    3.3 Passenger arrivals in batches

    3.3.1 Batch arrivals in elevator lobbies

    3.3.2 Batch arrivals in escalators

    3.3.3 Observed batch size distributions in several building types

    3.3.4 Batch size variation in elevator lobbies during the day

    3.3.5 Modelling of batch size distribution

    4. Daily vertical passenger traffic profiles

    4.1 Introduction

    4.1 Vertical building traffic components

    4.1 Two-way traffic profiles

    4.1 Effect of inter-floor traffic

    4.1 Occupancy in buildings

    4.2 Passenger trips with elevators

    4.3 People flow in office buildings

    4.3.1 Traffic in offices

    4.3.2 Observed daily two-way traffic profiles

    4.3.3 Daily traffic profiles with interfloor traffic

    4.4 People flow in hotels

    4.4.1 Traffic in hotels

    4.4.2 Daily traffic profiles in hotels

    4.5 People flow in residential buildings

    4.5.1 Traffic in residential buildings

    4.5.2 Traffic profiles in residential buildings

    4.6 People flow profiles in hospitals

    4.6.1 Hospital traffic

    4.6.2 Daily traffic in hospitals

    4.7 People flow in commercial and public buildings

    4.7.1 Traffic in commercial and public buildings

    4.7.2 Daily people flow in escalators

    4.7.3 Daily people flow in elevators in shopping centers

    4.7.4 Duration of a visit in a shopping center

    4.7.5 People flow by GPS in public buildings

    4.8 People flow on cruise ships

    4.8.1 Traffic in cruisers

    4.8.2 Daily traffic profiles for typical days

    5. Monitored elevator traffic data

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Service quality parameters

    5.3 Measured passenger service level

    5.3.1 Measured passenger traffic with external device

    5.3.2 Call time distribution

    5.3.3 Waiting time distribution with destination control

    5.3.4 Monthly service times

    5.4 Measured elevator performance

    5.4.1 Number of starts during a month

    5.4.2 Correlation between cycle time and round trip time

    Part II: People Flow Solutions

    6. Historical overview

    7. Push button control systems

    7.1 Signal operation

    7.2 Single-button collective control

    7.3 Down collective control

    7.4 Interconnected full collective control principle

    8. Collective group control system

    8.1 Software-based collective control system

    8.2 Bunching

    8.3 Next car up

    8.4 Dynamic sub-zoning

    8.5 Channeling

    8.6 Queue selective control system

    9. Intelligent group control systems

    9.1 Performance requirements

    9.2 Control system architectures

    10. Artificial Intelligence in elevator dispatching

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 AI architectures

    10.3 Traffic forecasting

    10.4 Fuzzy logic

    10.5 Genetic algorithm

    10.6 Neural networks

    10.7 Optimization objective functions

    10.8 Elevator lobby with collective control system

    10.9 Hospital service modes

    11. Destination control system

    11.1 Adaptive call allocation algorithm

    11.2 Destination control system

    11.3 Hybrid destination control system

    11.4 “Harmonized” elevator dispatching

    11.5 Elevator lobby with destination control system

    12. Multi-car control systems

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Paternoster

    12.3 Odyssey

    12.4 Double-deck elevators

    12.4.1 Functional principle of double-deck elevators

    12.4.2 Double-deck collective control

    12.4.3 Double-deck destination control

    12.4.4 Harmonized dispatching for double-deck elevators

    12.5 TWIN

    12.6 MULTI

    12.7 Other possible multi-car elevator control systems

    13. Access control systems

    2.11. Application areas

    2.12. Access control by an external provider

    2.13. Access control embedded in an elevator control

    14. Architectural considerations of elevators

    14.1 Layouts with conventional control

    14.2 Layouts with destination control system

    14.3 Dimensions of passenger elevators

    14.1 Vertical elevator dimensions

    14.2 Lobby arrangement with double-deck elevators

    15. Architectural considerations of other people flow solutions

    15.1 Escalator arrangements

    15.2 Horizontal escalator dimensions

    15.3 Vertical escalator dimensions

    15.4 Dimensions of moving walkways

    15.5 Staircase dimensions

    15.6 Building door types

    Part III: People Flow Calculation Methods

    16. Introduction

    17. Elevator traffic calculation methods

    17.1 Elevator performance parameters

    17.2 Elevator handling capacity equation

    17.3 Elevator kinematics

    17.3.1 Elevator rated speed

    17.3.2 Flight time calculation

    17.4 Up-peak round trip time equations

    17.4.1 Uniform passenger arrivals

    17.4.2 Poisson arrival process

    17.4.3 Uniform arrival process for r-floor elevator jumps

    17.4.4 Poisson arrival process for r-floor elevator jumps

    17.4.5 Uniform arrival process for elevator jumps between floor pairs

    17.4.6 Poisson arrival process for elevator jumps between floor pairs

    17.4.7 A generalized roundtrip time formula

    17.5 Round trip time related equations

    17.5.1 Shuttle elevators

    17.5.2 Express zones

    17.5.3 Dynamic zoning in up-peak

    17.5.4 Unsymmetric elevator groups

    17.5.5 Multiple entrance floors

    17.5.6 Two-way traffic

    17.6 Multicar traffic analysis

    17.6.1 Paternoster performance

    17.6.2 Double-deck performance

    17.6.3 Number of MULTI cabins and shafts

    18. Passenger service level

    18.1 Queuing theoretical approach

    18.1.1 Waiting times

    18.1.2 Transit times

    18.1.3 Journey time

    18.2 Queuing at hot spots

    18.3 Egress time with elevators

    19. Pedestrian traffic

    19.1 People flow density

    19.1.1 Level of Service

    19.1.2 Human body size

    19.1.3 Passenger characteristics

    19.1.4 Passenger space demand in elevators

    19.2 Escalator handling capacity

    19.3 Handling capacity of moving walkways

    19.4 People flow in walkways

    19.5 People flow in staircases

    19.6 People flow in corridors and doorways

    19.7 Handling capacities of turnstiles and ticket counters

    19.8 Number of destination operation panels

    Part IV: People Flow Simulation Methods

    20. Introduction

    21. Traffic simulation methods

    21.1 Monte Carlo simulation

    21.2 Passenger traffic generation

    21.3 Traffic simulation of an elevator group

    21.4 Building traffic simulation

    21.5 People flow simulation

    21.5.1 Simulation software architecture

    21.5.2 Passenger routing model

    22. Simulation procedure

    22.1 Simulated handling capacity

    22.2 Initial transient

    22.3 Stepwise or ramp arrival profiles

    22.4 Traffic patterns

    22.4.1 Introduction

    22.4.2 Office traffic templates

    22.4.3 Hotel traffic templates

    22.4.4 Traffic templates of residential buildings

    23. Validation of elevator traffic simulation software

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Verification of simulator models

    23.3 Validation of the elevator traffic simulator

    24. Simulated elevator performance and passenger service level

    24.1 Introduction

    24.1 Up-peak boosting

    24.1.1 Traffic boosting with destination control

    24.1.2 Boosting with double-deck system

    24.1.3 Effect of elevator group size

    24.2 Traffic simulations with diverse control systems

    24.2.1 Simulation setup for an example building

    24.2.2 Conventional control with single-car elevator system

    24.2.3 Destination control with single-car elevator system

    24.2.4 Conventional control double-deck system

    24.2.5 Destination control double-deck system

    24.3 Comparison handling capacities

    24.4 Service time distributions with conventional system

    Part V: People Flow Planning and Evacuation

    25. Introduction

    26. ISO 8100-32

    26.1 Background

    26.2 Design process

    26.3 ISO calculation method

    26.1 ISO simulation method

    26.2 Selection of rated load based on mass

    26.3 Selection of rated load based on area and mass

    27. Design criteria

    27.1 ISO 8100-32 design criteria

    27.2 BCO design criteria for offices

    27.3 Other design criteria

    28. Elevatoring low and mid-rise buildings

    28.1 Offices

    28.2 Hotels

    28.3 Residential buildings

    28.4 Hospitals

    28.5 Parking areas

    29. People transportation in commercial and public buildings

    29.1 Mass transits

    29.2 Public transportation buildings

    29.3 Commercial buildings

    29.4 Observation decks

    30. Elevatoring tall buildings

    30.1 Background

    30.2 Zoning of supertall buildings

    30.3 Example zonings of a supertall building

    30.4 Arrangements with zoning from the ground

    30.4.1 Elevator arrangement selection with ISO simulation method

    30.4.2 Elevator group lobby layouts

    30.4.3 Main entrance core areas

    30.5 Sky lobby arrangement

    30.5.1 Double-deck shuttle elevators

    30.5.2 Multi-car shuttle elevators

    30.5.3 Elevator selection with ISO simulation method

    30.5.4 Elevator group lobby layouts

    30.5.5 Main entrance core areas for sky lobby arrangements

    31. Core space of different arrangements

    32. Building evacuation

    32.1 Introduction

    32.2 Egress time calculation in building design

    32.2.1 Background

    32.2.2 Egress by stairs

    32.2.3 Egress by elevators

    32.3 Generic emergency evacuation types

    32.3.1 Non-fire emergency evacuation

    32.3.2 Fire evacuation modes

    32.3.3 Scenatio configuration from BMS

    32.4 Elevator evacuation-related standards and guidelines

    32.4.1 Evacuation elevator requirements

    32.4.2 Firefighters lifts - EN 81-72:2015

    32.4.3 Evacuation of disabled persons using lifts - CEN/TS 81-76:2011

    32.4.4 Occupant Evacuation Operation - ASME A17.1:2013

    32.4.5 Elevators used to assist in building evacuation - ISO/TS 18870:2014

    32.5 Evacuation strategies of megatall buildings

    32.5.1 Introduction

    32.5.2 Jeddah Tower

    32.5.3 Shanghai Tower

    32.5.4 Royal Clock Tower, Makkah

    32.5.5 One World Trade Center, New York

    33. How high can we go?




  • Author Bio

    Dr. Marja-Liisa Siikonen (née Jokela), PhD, is the CEO of MLS Lift Consulting. Earlier she worked as a Director of People Flow Planning in KONE Corporation, Finland. She received her M.Sc. in technical physics, and Lic.Sc. (Tech.) and D.Sc. (Tech.) degree in applied mathematics from the Helsinki University of Technology. She has published around 100 articles and holds 250 patents in the field of elevator control systems and energy consumption, elevator traffic planning, building traffic simulation and evacuation, and people flow in buildings.

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